General Bibliography


Azarpay, Guitty. Sogdian Painting. The Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art. University of California Press, 1981.

L’Asie des Steppes, d’Alexandre le Grand à Gengis Khan, Exhibition Catalogue, Paris: Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 2000. 

Belenitsky, A. M., Piotrovsky, B. B. Sculpture and Painting of the Ancient Panjikent (Skuptura I Jivopis Drevnego Pianjikenta), Moscow, 1959.

Belenitsky A. M., Marshak B. I. “L'art de Piandjikent à la lumière des dernières fouilles (1958-1968)”, in Arts Asiatiques, Tome 23, 1971, pp. 3-39.

Belenitsky, A. M. Monumental Art of Penjikent. Painting and Scupture (Monumentalnoe Iskusstvo Penjikenta. Jivopis, Skulptura), Moscow, 1973.

Compareti, Matteo. “Traces of Buddhist Art in Sogdiana”, Sino-Platonic Papers, 181, August, 2008.

Compareti, Matteo. “Iranian Elements in Kasmir and Tibet. Sasanian and Sogdian Borrowings in Kashmiri and Tibetan Art”, in Transoxiana, 14, Agosto, 2009. Available online at

Compareti, Matteo. “The Indian Iconography of the Sogdian Divinities and the Role of Buddhism and Hinduism in its Transmission”, Annali dell’Istituto Orientale di Napoli, 69, 1-4, 2009, pp. 175-210.

Compareti, Matteo. “Classical Elements in Sogdian Art: Aesop’s Fables Represented in the Mural Paintings at Penjikent”, in Iranica Antiqua,Vol. XLVII, 2012, pp. 303-316.

De Vaissière, Etienne. Sogdian Traders, A History, Leiden, Boston, 2005.

Errington, Elizabeth et al (ed). The Crossroads of Asia. Transformation in Image and Symbol in the Art of Ancient Afghanistan and Pakistan, Exhibition Catalogue, Cambridge, 1992.

Expedition Silk Road: Journey to the WestTreasures from the Hermitage, Exhibition catalogue, Hermitage Amsterdam, 2014.

Foltz, Richard. Religions of the Silk Road: Premodern Patterns of Globalization, New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1999.

Foltz, Richard. "Buddhism in the Iranian World", in The Muslim World, 2010, p. 204-214.

Foltz, Richard. "The Role of the Sogdians in the Spread of World Religions", in Papers in Honour of Professor Z. Zarshenas, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran, 2013, pp. 23-29.

Foltz, Richard. “Silk Road and Migration”, in The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, Blackwell Publishing, 2013.

Forte, Erika. “A Journey “to the Land on the Other Side”. Buddhist Pilgrimage and Travelling Objects from the Oasis of Khotan”, in Cultural Flows across the Western Himalaya, edited by Patrick Mc Allister, Cristina Scherrer-Schaub and Helmut Krasser,Vienna: VÖAW, 2015, pp. 151-185.

Foucher, A. The Beginnings of Buddhist Art and Other Essays in Indian and Central Asian Archaeology, Paris and London, 1917.

Frye, Richard N. The Heritage of Central Asia. From Antiquity to the Turkish Expansion, Markus Wiener Publishers, Princeton, 1996.

Ghose, Madhuvanti. “A Rare Image of the Goddess Nana from Afghanistan”, in Afghanistan, Ancien Carrefour entre l’Est et l’Ouest, Actes du Colloque  International, Brepols, 2005, pp. 259-270.

Grenet Frantz, Marshak Boris Ilich. “Le mythe de Nana dans l'art de la Sogdiane”,  in Arts Asiatiques, Tome 53, 1998, pp. 5-18.

Grenet, Franz. “Religious Diversity among Sogdian Merchants in Sixth-Century China: Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Manichaeism, and Hinduism”, in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, Volume 27, Number 2, 2007, pp. 463-478.

Grenet, Franz. “Iranian Gods in Hindu Garb: The Zoroastrian Pantheon of the Bactrians and Sogdians, Second– Eighth Centuries,” in Bulletin of Asia Institute, 20, 2010, pp. 87–99.

Hansen, Valerie. The Silk Road: A New History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Hayashi, Ryoichi. The Silk Road and the Shoso- in. New York; Tokyo: Weatherhill/Heibonsha, 1975.

Kantor, Helene J. “The Shoulder Ornament of Near Eastern Lions”, in Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 6, No. 4 (October), 1947, pp. 250-274.

Karev, Yuri. “Sogdian Captives and Mawalis at the Caliphate:  Context and Conditions of Acculturation” (“Sogdiiskie Plenniki I Mawali v Khalifate: Kontekst I Usloviya Akkulturatsii”), in Cultural Transfer in Central Asia: Before, During and After the Silk Road, Paris-Samarkand, 2013, pp. 130-135.

Kumamoto, Hiroshi. “On the Pahlavi Inscription”, in Museum, Tokyo National Museum, August, 1987, p. 16.

Lurje, Pavel. “Personal Names in Sogdian Texts”, in Iranisches Personennamenbuch, Vienna, 2010. 

Lung, Rachel. Interpreters in Early Imperial China, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, 2011.

Marshak, Boris. Legends, Tales, and Fables in the Art of Sogdiana, New York, 2002.

Minardi, Michele. “A Four-Armed  Goddess from Ancient Chorasmia: History, Iconography and Style of an Ancient Chorasmian Icon”, in Iran, Vol. 51, 2013, pp. 111-143.

Mkrtychev, Tigran. “Buddhism and Features of the Buddhist Art of Bactria-Tocharistan”, in After Alexander. Central Asia Before Islam, British Academy, OUP, 2007, pp. 475-485.

Ostler, Nicholas. The Last Lingua Franca: English Until the Return of Babel,  New York, 2010.

Pande, Anupa (ed). The Art of Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent in Cross-Cultural Perspective, New Delhi, 2009.

Pratt, James Bissett. The Pilgrimage of Buddhism and Buddhist Pilgrimage, 1980.

Puri, B. N. Buddhism in Central Asia, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1987.

Rowland, Benjamin Jr. The Evolution of the Buddha Image, New York: The Asia Society, 1976.

Semenov, G. L. “A Motif from Mahabharata in the Painting of Panjikent” (“Siuzet iz «Mahabharaty» v zivopisi Pendzikenta”), in Kul’turnoe nasledie vostoka: problemy, poiski, suzdenija, Leningrad, 1985, pp. 216-229.

Sen, Tansen. “Buddhism and the Maritime Crossings”, in China and Beyond in the Mediaeval Period: Cultural Crossings and Inter-Regional Connections, Amherst and Delhi, 2014, p. 39-62. 

Sims-Williams, Nicolas. “The Sogdian Merchants in China and India,” in Cina e Iran da Alessandro Magno alla dinastia Tang, ed. A. Cadonna & L. Lanciotti, Florence: Leo S. Olschki Editore, 1996, pp. 45-67.

Sokolovsky, Vladimir. Monumental Painting in the Palace Complex of Bunjikat, the Capital of Medieval Ustrushana 8th-early 9th Centruries (Monumentalnaja Jivopis VIII-Nachala IX Veka Dvortsovogo Kompleksa Bunjikata, Stolitsy Srednevekovogo Gosudarstva Ustrushany), St Petersburg, 2009.

Stavisky, B. Y. Art of the Central Asia, Ancient Period VI BC-VIII AD (Iskusstvo Sredney Asii, Drevny Period VI v do n. e.- VIII v. n. e), Moscow, 1974.

Stavisky, B. Y. The Destinies of Buddhism in Central Asia, According to the Archeological Finds (Sudby Buddizma v Sredney Azii, Po Dannym Archeologii), Moscow, 1998.

Tono, Haruyuki. “Inscriptions on the Scented Woods in the Horyuji Treasures and Ancient Incense Trade – with Special Reference to Pahlavi Inscriptions and Sogdian Brand”, in Museum, Tokyo National Museum, August, 1987, pp. 4-15. 

Tremblay, Xavier. “The Spread of Buddhism in Serindia: Buddhism among Iranians, Tocharians and Turks before the 13th Century”, in The Spread of Buddhism, Brill, Leiden-Boston, 2007, pp. 75-129.

Utz, David A. A Survey of Buddhist Sogdian Studies, Tokyo: The Reiyukai Library, 1978.

Yajima, Hikoichi. “The Stamped Aromatic Woods from the Treasure House of Horyuji and the Early Islamic Indian Ocean”, in Journal of Asian and African Studies, 37, 1989, pp. 123-141.

Yakubovich, Ilia. Problems of Sogdian Etymology (Problemy Sogdiyskoy Etimologii), PhD Thesis, Russian State University of Humanities, Moscow, 2009.

Yoshida, Yutaka. “On the Sogdian Brands”, ”, in Museum, Tokyo National Museum, August, 1987, p. 17.

Yoshida, Yutaka. Review of N. Sims-Williams, Sogdian and Other Iranian Inscriptions of the Upper Indus, in Indo-Iranian Journal, 36/3, 1993, p. 256.

Xinjiang, Rong , “Buddhist Images or Zoroastrian Deities? The Mixture of Religions on the Silk Road as Seen in Khotan”, in Commentationes Iranicae. Vladimiro f. Aaron Livschits Nonagenario Donum Natalicium (Sbornik Statej k 90-letiyu Vladimira Aronovitcha Livshitza), Saint Petersburg: Russian Academy of Science, 2013, pp. 423-434.










General Bibliography